Monday, October 17, 2022

Extraversion, extravert


Extraversion is a broad spectrum personality trait. People with a high degree of extraversion are considered outgoing, sociable, friendly, and highly expressive. They tend to enjoy being around other people.

Tests

Extraversion-Introversion is one of the Big Five traits measured in Big Five tests available in many languages.

Extraversion is also measured on the HEXACO scales available in many languages.

Surveys

According to over 13,000 Americans (YouGovAmerica, 2021):

32% considered themselves more extroverted than introverted

9 % identified as "completely extroverted"

Among those who identified as completely extroverted, 43% said their partner was also completely extroverted. See the survey for more details.

Research

Wilmot et al. (2019) reviewed research on the advantages of extraversion in the workplace. There were positive effects linked to 90% of the variables studied. They described the nature of the effect as a "small, persistent advantage." (p. 1447) The authors reported the advantages in four categories: motivational, emotional, interpersonal, and performance.

Personality Type

People with high levels of extraversion may be called extraverts and described as extraversive or extraverted. As a personality trait, most recognize that "pure" types do not exist. Instead, people have more or less of a particular trait.

History note

Carl Jung is credited with the early conceptualization of introversion and extroversion.

Quote from Jung (1921/1923) in Chapter X of Psychological Types.

The general-attitude types, as I have pointed out more than once, are differentiated by their particular attitude to the object. The introvert's attitude to the object is an abstracting one; at bottom, he is always facing the problem of how libido can be withdrawn from the object, as though an attempted ascendancy on. the part of the object had to be continually frustrated. The extravert, on the contrary, maintains a positive relation to the object. To such an extent does he affirm its importance that his subjective attitude is continually being orientated by, and related to the object. An fond, the object can never have sufficient value; for him, therefore, its importance must always be paramount.

Spelling

In psychology, there is a preference for extraversion for some spell the concept with an "o" thus, extroversion.

Introversion and Extraversion are one of the features in the domain of Observable Behavior in the SCOPES model of human functioning.


References

Jung, C.G. (1921/1923). Psychological Types (Translated by H. G. Baynes). New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Wilmot, M. P., Wanberg, C. R., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., & Ones, D. S. (2019). Extraversion advantages at work: A quantitative review and synthesis of the meta-analytic evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(12), 1447–1470. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000415.supp (Supplemental)

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